Light Lists Overview

Click here to read the article "History of Illuminants" by Connie Jo Kendall taken from the Spring 1997 The Keeper's Log for a very good overview of lamp and reflector systems, Fresnel lenses, types of lighthouses, illuminants, and more!

Welcome to "United States Historical Light List Display Resource"

You will be able to view characteristics, structure and optics, audible fog signals, and other signals (radiobeacons, distance finding, and special radio direction finder calibration (lighthouse-only)) that was extracted from the published lights for many lighthouses and lightships. You will be able view maps within the United States that show how the characteristics have changed throughout the years. Additionally, you will be able to view actual current satellite images and street maps which will indicate past or present positions for each lighthouse and lightship. Furthermore, you will be able to view radiobeacon stations that are not just lighthouse and lightship specific, and special radio direction finder calibration stations that is just not lighthouse specific.

Here are some of the things you can do:

  • Display light characteristic information on a light list or lighthouse/lightship basis.
  • Display structure and optic information on a light list or lighthouse/lightship basis.
  • Display audible fog signal information on a light list or lighthouse/lightship basis.
  • Display other signal information on a light list or lighthouse/lightship basis.
  • Display detailed distance finding information on a light list or lighthouse/lightship basis.
  • Display detailed radiobeacon information on a light list or lighthouse/lightship basis.
  • Display detailed special radio direction calibration station information on a light list or lighthouse basis.
  • Display a Google Map™ for a selected lighthouse/lightship which shows its various locations over time.

You might find the miscellaneous comments informative while using this resource since it describes some assumptions used on the resource and observations made while researching the light lists.

USLHS Banner

A banner is always displayed at the very top of every USLHS webpage, and this includes the USLHS Light Lists and all other resources. Its appearance is very much like the USLHS banner when the Education navigation bar item was selected, but a few additional things have been added to it that are only applicable to the USLHS resources.

A small vertical navigation bar under the USLHS logo is displayed that allows you to easily access each of the USLHS resources, with the active resource being highlighted:

Community - keep track of your lighthouse visits, passport stamps, photos, and trips, display comments about lights you see, cross referenced with Society tours, plot the locations of lighthouses using different methods including GPS and Google Maps, communicate with other contributors via email through the website, download GPS coordinates that can be stored on your GPS device. Since this is a community, your information is automatically shared with the rest of the community! The list of features goes on and on.

Light Lists - access information was extracted from the historical light lists of the United States. You can access graphical representations for sections of the United States where arcs are displayed that represent the light characteristics of those lighthouses on the map. You then can see how lighthouses were activated or deactivated over time, and how their characteristics may have changed over time. You can also access the historical light list information, including fog signal, structure, radiobeacon special radio direction finders information, for an entire light list or a particular lighthouse. Futhermore, characteristic, structure, fog signal, and radiobeacon information for lightship stations is included. All areas of the United States have been researched in detail except the Great Lakes(a future project). However, the current characteristics are still available both graphically and non-graphically for the Great Lakes.

Lighthouse Photos - display thousands of historical and more recent lighthouse photos the USLHS has amassed over the years. View many rarely seen photos of lighthouses that no longer exist.

Architectural Drawings - display hundreds of architectural drawings the USLHS has obtained over the years, mainly from the Pacific Coast.

Inventory - this National Archives information presented was extracted from a database that was originally compiled for the U.S. Coast Guard Historian's Office by volunteers of the U.S. Lighthouse Society's Chesapeake Chapter. It contains information reproduced from U.S. Government "Description of Light Station" inspection reports in Record Group 26 of the National Archives, Washington, DC. Most U.S. lighthouses are represented in this resource. Light Vessel reports in this database also come from Record Group 26.

If you have signed into the Community resource, then your name will appear on the lower-left side of the USLHS banner. Three buttons will be displayed underneath your name:

Profile - by clicking this button, you can edit your profile which dictates how certain features will operate on the resource pages.

Logout - by clicking this button, you can logout of the Community resource. You will still have access to the other resources and still can log back into the Community resource if so desired.

What's New - by clicking this button, you can display a history of the changes that have been made to the resource. Only the Community and Light Lists resources currently have a What's New page, so this button will not be displayed for the other resources.

Edit Your Profile Page

IMPORTANT: You only need to create a profile for yourself if you plan to use the Community resource. There is only one setting that is specific to the Light Lists resource. However, if you are a Community member, you have a little more control on what can be displayed on area maps.

You can always change the settings in your profile by clicking the Profile button on the USLHS banner as long as you are logged into the Community resource. If you are new to the USLHS resources, then you must create a new profile which will allow you can access the Community resource. The Your Profile page displays all of your current profile settings and is divided into the following sections:

General Information - contains general information about yourself.

Community Resource Information - contains settings that are specific to the Community resource.

Light Lists Resource Information - contains settings that are specific to the Light Lists resource.

Password Information - allows you to change your password.

When you click the Edit button in the General Information section, the following profile information can be edited:

First Name - your first name. For couples, you might want to enter both of your names such as Jack and Jill.

Last Name - your last name.

User ID - a unique identifier (case-sensitive) for yourself. You can make it whatever you want and nobody will be able to see it. You must remember this value since it is required when you sign into Community.

Country - the country where you live (required). If you live outside the United States or Canada, you must specify Other for your country.

State or Province - the state or province where you live. If you do not live in the United States or Canada, you must specify [None].

E-mail Address - your e-mail address (required).

IMPORTANT: If you were a Community member before the USLHS website was redesigned, the e-mail address field was not required. However, since it is required now, you will not be able to update your general information without providing your e-mail address.

When you click the Edit button in the Community Resource Information section, the following profile information can be edited:

Your Visit Area - limit the countries you are interested in where lighthouses are located to either the United States only, Canada only, or to North America (i.e., United States and Canada) on pages accessed through the Your Info sidebar.

Enthusiasts Visit Area - limit the countries you are interested in where lighthouses are located to either the United States only, Canada only, or to North America (i.e., United States and Canada) on pages accessed through the Enthusiasts sidebar.

Skip Confirmations - determines whether a successful confirmation is displayed after modifying one of your logged visits, modifying your profile, modifying a trip, etc. By specifying Yes, you should be able to edit information a little faster. Of course, you still are notified if an edit change fails. You are still notified for other confirmations such as downloading waypoints or downloading your current visits.

Area Maps - determines whether outline maps or Google Maps™ are displayed when accessing maps using either the USA Map or Canada Map sidebar menu item.

Thumbnails Per Page - the number of thumbnails displayed on photo-related pages. You may specify 30 (the default), 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, or 120. By increasing this value, the time to load the page will increase accordingly.

Website URL - a URL that a site visitor can access which is closely related to you. Do not include the URL header (e.g., 'http://www') in this field. Please be discrete when specifying the URL.

When you click the Edit button in the Light Lists Resource Information section, the following profile information can be edited:

Show Missing Light Lists - determines whethere missing year gaps are displayed when displaying light list information for a particular lighthouse or lightship station. Since there are many light lists that have not been found to research, setting this value to No (the default) may reduce a lot of clutter. If you have not logged into Community, then the missing light lists will not be displayed.

When you click the Edit button in the Password Information section, a dialog is displayed that allows you to change your password.

What's New Page

You can see the latest updates that have been included in the Light Lists resource by clicking the What's New button on the USLHS banner.

1.2 Resource Navigation

In order to navigate though the USLHS resources, a small navigation bar, displayed immediately below the USLHS logo, and the sidebar must be used. The small navigation bar lets you select the desired resource (such as Community or Light Lists), and the sidebar provides access to the features of that resource. The main USLHS navigation bar is not used for these resources. Within the Light Lists resource, there are six different main sections and, thus, six different sidebars; access the appropriate section in the overview to view detailed information about the sidebars for each Light Lists main section:

Overview - display what you are reading right now.

Area Maps - display an outline USA map that allows you to select an area to graphically represent the light charactersitics using static arcs during any given year, display an outline USA map that allows you to select an area to graphically represent the light charactersitics using dynamic flashing circles during any given year, and display a list of USA areas that allows you to select an area to graphically represent the light charactersitics using static arcs during any given year.

Light Lists - display light list related information (characteristics, structures and optics, audible fog signals, other signals, radiobeacon, distance finding, and special radio direction finder calibration) for the researched light lists.

Stations - access light station features such as display the states and provinces that have lighthouses and lightships, displaying aliases for lighthouses, displaying lightship stations, and displaying aliases for lightships.

Radiobeacon Maps - display radiobeacon maps and tables for all radiobeacons, whether they are located at lightstations, lightships, or elsewhere.

Special Radio Direction Finders - display special radio direction finder maps and tables for all special radio direction finders, whether they are located at lightstations or elsewhere.

Glossary - display in depth descriptions of information extracted from the light lists.

Additionally mostly in the Community resource but used in the Light Lists resource, a mini-navigation bar, whose buttons are displayed with white text on a green background, may be displayed immediately above the page header and immediately below the USLHS banner. These buttons allow you to access certain features that are specific to the page. For example, all of the pages support help, so a HELP button is displayed on the mini-navigation bar. Other buttons appear as needed.

If the amount of information displayed on the page is long (more than likely cannot fit on the screen), then a "Return to Top" link is displayed at the bottom of a page.

USA Map and Map Lists Pages

You can view maps of various areas in the United States in one of three ways through menu items on the Area Maps sidebar; in order to access the area maps, you must click the Area Maps submenu item in the OTHER SECTIONS menu when the Area Maps sidebar is not displayed:

STATIC ARC CHARACTERISTICS - access a map that defines these various areas within the United States where the light characteristics for those lighthouses and lightships in that area of the map are displayed using static arcs. For example, you may view a map of the Great Lakes, any of the individual Great Lakes, Oregon, southern Florida, northern Maine, etc. simply by clicking within the defined area on the United States map.

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS - access a map that defines these various areas within the United States where the light characteristics for those lighthouses and lightships in that area of the map are displayed using dynamic flashing circles. For example, you may view a map of Seattle simply by clicking within the defined area on the United States map.

MAP LISTS - display a list of areas within the United States that correspond to the areas graphically represented on the USA map. By clicking on the desired area name, the light characteristics for those lighthouses and lightships in that area of the map are displayed using static arcs.

While an area may be named an individual state such as 'Washington' or 'Oregon' or a group of states such as Massachusetts/Rhode Island, lighthouses and lightships from bordering states may still appear on the area map. For example, if the Oregon area map is displayed, a few lighthouses in southern Washington and a few lighthouses in northern California may be represented on the map.

What Area Maps Are

Static Arc Characteristics

The first type of area maps, which are accessed either by clicking an area on the USA Area Map for Static Arc Characteristics Display page that is accessed by clicking the STATIC ARC CHARACTERISTICS menu item within the Area Maps sidebar, or by clicking on a link on the Map List of Areas for Static Arc Characteristics Display page that is accessed by clicking the MAP LISTS menu item on the same menu, graphically represent the light distance aspect of the lighthouse and lightship characteristics. The graphical representations for the characteristics are arcs. For example, if a lighthouse has a fixed white light that illuminates in all directions, a white circle represents the characteristic. As another example, if a lighthouse has a flashing light with white and red sectors where the white light could be seen from 100° through 180°, and the red sector could be seen from 180° through 200°, then two arcs represent the characteristic, one for the white sector and one for the red sector assuming the light distances are different.

The exact degrees for sectors and obstructions (both are not applicable for lightship stations) may not be known (particularly for light lists before 1915). For example, a light may have been said to be "obstructed westward of the shore". As another example, compass points may have been used to identify the sectors or obstructions. In both cases, a full circle will normally represent the characteristic since the degrees of the obstruction cannot be accurately determined. However, if the sector degrees for a light are not known, an educated guess may be used when mocking the characteristic arcs; for example, if the sector degrees for a subsequent year are known, the characteristic arcs will be displayed using those sector degrees.

While in almost all of the cases the light distances are specified in the light lists, there will be instances where this is not so, particularly for minor lights or range lights. In this case a default light distance of six nautical miles will be assumed when showing the characteristic on an area map.

Up through the year 1972, the radius of the arc represents the geographical range of the light. Typically, there is no difference (i.e., distinction) in the geographical range that different light colors can be seen from a particular lighthouse or lightship and, thus, the radii of the arcs on the area maps will be the same. After the year 1972, at which time the U.S. Coast Guard stopped supplying the geographical range in their light lists, the radius of this arc represents the nominal range of the light. In most cases, the nominal range of different color lights from a particular lighthouse or lightship will be different and, thus, the radii of the arcs on the area maps will be different.

Initially when a map is accessed, the lighthouse characteristics for the last researched year (2004) are displayed. Year navigation buttons are shown above the map which allow you to select a map for a given year; the buttons represent each possible year in which a light list could have been researched for the lighthouses and lightship stations on the map (i.e., from the year of the first light list researched to the last year researched). If the background of the button is blue, then this denotes that a light list for that year has been researched. The text within these navigation buttons are white to denote when they can be accessed to view the characteristics for a different year for the same area. Thus, you will be able to see how historically the lighthouses and lightship stations have been developed in an area, and how the characteristics of these lighthouses and lightships has changed over time. The text within a year button is red to denote the year that is currently displayed. If the background of the button is light gray, then this denotes that the light list for that year has not been researched; thus, the button is inactive.

IMPORTANT: 2004 is the year of the last researched light lists; thus, some of the lighthouses such as the New Canal Light in Louisiana that were destroyed in Hurricane Katrina may still appear as 'current' lighthouses throughout these web pages. As another example, Sankaty Head was moved in 2007, but this new location is not reflected on this website since it occurred after 2004. Years after 2004 may be researched in the future, but for now 2004 is considered 'current'.

Below the area map, the lighthouses and lightship stations that are displayed on the above map and the lighthouses and lightship stations that are filtered are listed, sorted by the state name then the lighthouse/lightship station name. If any of the lighthouses or lightship stations on an area map are filtered, then the number of filtered lighthouses and lightship stations is displayed above map. By clicking on a lighthouse or lightship station name shown below the map, a single lighthouse or lightship station area map can be displayed. That is, the same base map with only the selected lighthouse or lightship station will appear on it. Basically the same navigation buttons that are displayed on the main area map are displayed on the single lighthouse or lightship station area map. However, a darker gray background year button, which is inactive, is displayed if the lighthouse or lightship station was not listed in the researched light list of that year.

NOTE: This single lighthouse or lightship station area map is supported since some of the area maps can have a lot of lighthouses and lightship stations on them, and it can be hard to determine what arcs represent the lighthouse's or lightship station's characteristic.

How To Use Area Maps

While viewing a map, you can move the cursor around and position it over a small black rectangle that denotes the position of the lighthouse or lightship station on the map and, thus, is in the center of the characteristic arc. When the cursor is positioned over a rectangle, the arcs that represent the characteristic will briefly flash in black, and then the lighthouse or lightship station name and its characteristic will popup. If you click one of these rectangles, a new Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ or Lightship Light List and Google Map™ page will be displayed that will show information extracted from the light lists as well as a Google Map™ that shows the location of the lighthouse or lightship station.

DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION: The lighthouse or lightship station name and characteristic popup box was developed using overLIB popup boxes. If you are a website developer and would like to show better popup boxes than the browser default, you can use this Javascript library free of charge.

If a lighthouse has a modern replacement, its characteristic will still be represented on the area maps only for those years in which it was deemed to be "modern". Instead of a small black rectangle denoting the position of the lighthouse on the map, a dark purple rectangle will be used to represent the modern characteristic. Modern lights that did not have at one time a more classical structure will not be represented on any of these web pages. There may also be modern replacement lights that are not represented on these web pages for those states that have not been researched yet; as the research of future light lists is completed, more modern replacements should appear on these web pages. All lightship stations are viewed as being classic (i.e., not modern) so its area map rectangle will always be black.

There are a few area maps that border Canada (Washington, Seattle, northern Maine, and the Great Lakes). For these maps, an additional navigation button called "2004 With Canada" is displayed which will allow you to see both the United States and Canadian lighthouse characteristics contained within the map. However, only the last researched year (2004) information, not historical, is available for Canadian lighthouses. If you click one of the small black rectangles in a Canadian province, a new page similar to a U.S. lighthouse will be displayed. Although a Google Map™ will be displayed, only the 2004 characteristic of the lighthouse will be shown.

Like the U.S. state lighthouses, the U.S. commonwealths of the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico have been fully researched.

In a few circumstances, the small rectangles that denote the positions of the lighthouses on the map may be right on top of each other. In these cases, the 'underneath' lighthouse(s) will not be accessible from the map. This may be more noticable with range lights or when the scale of the displayed map is large.

Filtering Lighthouses and Lightships on Area Maps

Some of the area maps may contain a large number of lighthouses and lightships on them. The arcs that represent each of the station's characteristic can appear to be cluttered. Some filters are provided for you that can reduce the number of stations displayed on the page. All of the filter settings you define will be saved with your profile. Buttons are displayed below the maps on the USA Map and Map Lists pages that permit you the access to alter your filter settings ONLY IF you are currently logged into the Community resource; thus, if you are not currently logged in, any filters that you may have previously created will not be applied.

Set General Filters

By clicking on the Set General Area Map Filters button that appears on either a USA Map page or on the Map Lists page, a dialog is displayed that contains the following listboxes:

Specified Filtered Stations - determines whether the lighthouses and lightships that were selected for filtering using the Set Specific Lighthouse Filters and Set Specific Lightship Filters dialogs will actually be filtered. If the Use filters option is selected, then those stations individually specified for filtering will not be displayed on the area maps; if the Do not use filters option (default) is selected, then those stations specified for filtering may be displayed on the area maps.

Modern Stations - determines whether the lighthouse's or lightship's modern replacement status will cause it to be filtered. The modern replacement status is only applicable to the year of the area map, not its current status. If the Modern only option is selected, then only those lighthouses that have a modern status may be displayed on the area maps (lighthships are always view as being classic). If the Classic only option is selected, then only those lighthouse or lightship stations that have a classic status may be displayed on the area maps. If the Modern and classic option (default) is selected, then the modern status of a lighthouse will not cause a lighthouse to be filtered. All lightship stations are considered to be classic.

Currently Operational - determines whether the lighthouse's currently operational status (i.e., still in use in 2004) will cause it to be filtered. If the Currently active only option is selected, then only those lighthouses that are currently active may be displayed on the area maps. If the Currently inactive only option is selected, then only those lighthouses that are currently inactive and lightship stations may be displayed on the area maps. If the Currently active and inactive option (default) is selected, then the currently active status of a lighthouse will not cause a lighthouse to be filtered. Since there are no current lightships, they are all inactive.

Whether a lighthouse or lightship is actually filtered on an area map is based on the status of all the filters. If any one of the general filters dictates that a station should be filtered, then the station will be filtered. That is, there is a boolean OR relationship between each of the filters. For example, it is not possible to display only those stations on an area map that are classic AND still operational.

Once you have finished defining the general filter settings, click the SUBMIT button.

Set Specific Lighthouse Filters

By clicking on the Set Specific Lighthouse Filters button that appears on either a USA Map page or on the Map Lists page, a new page is displayed that shows the various regions of the lighthouses. By clicking on a region, a dialog is displayed that lists each of the lighthouses (may not currently exist) in the states or provinces. Each lighthouse has a checkbox that determines whether you want to filter that lighthouse. However, the Specified Filtered Lighthouses general filter setting described above determines whether the filtering is actually enabled.

In order to facilitate setting or resetting the filter status for an entire state or province, two buttons are displayed for each state. The Filter button will set the filter status for each lighthouse in the state or province, and the Unfilter button will reset the filter status for each lighthouse in the state or province. Once you have finished setting the filter status for each lighthouse in the region, click the SUBMIT button.

Set Specific Lightship Filters

By clicking on the Set Specific Lightship Filters button that appears on either a USA Map page or on the Map Lists page, a dialog is displayed that lists each of the researched lightships. Each lightship has a checkbox that determines whether you want to filter that lightship. However, the Specified Filtered Lightships general filter setting described above determines whether the filtering is actually enabled.

In order to facilitate setting or resetting the filter status for an entire state, two buttons are displayed for each state. The Filter button will set the filter status for each lightship in the state, and the Unfilter button will reset the filter status for each lightship in the state. Once you have finished setting the filter status for each researched lightship, click the SUBMIT button.

Dynamic Characteristics

The second type of area maps, which are accessed by clicking an area on the USA Area Map for Dynamic Characteristics Display page that is accessed by clicking the DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS menu item within the Area Maps sidebar, graphically represent the flash and eclipse durations of the characteristics. The usage of these maps is almost exactly the same as the static arc maps described above. The graphical representations of the light characteristics are small circles whose colors and display length that closely represent each characteristic as they change through the durations of their characteristic periods.

IMPORTANT: It is not the intention for the simulation to keep exact time, but hopefully it should be fairly accurate. Upgrading to the latest versions of the different browsers tested seems to work the best. It is not the intention to display the arcs in their correct sizes or the maps would look like a mess!

Differences from Static Arc Characteristics

The following are differences between the dynamic and static arc light characteristic maps:

Simulation of Characteristic - each lighthouse's and lightship station's light characteristic is dynamic represented. For example, if the characteristic is Fl W 5s. fl 0.4., then a small solid white circle would be displayed for 4.6 seconds then off for 0.4 seconds. All of the circles that represent the characteristics are a standard size, normally much smaller than the actual distance of the light. Furthermore, obstructions or sectors are not represented in the circles. The accuracy of each characteristic duration length should be very close but may vary with different browsers. Lightship stations always displayed their lights a full 360 degrees, so there is no such thing as sectors or obstructions for lightships.

Show Eclipse Durations Checkbox - by clicking this checkbox, all eclipse durations are displayed in black so you can see the positions of all of the lighthouses and lightship stations at all times.

Blackout Map Checkbox - by clicking this checkbox, the actual map will be displayed in all black, making the flashes more defined.

Lighthouse or Lightship Station List Info - if either the circle representing the lighthouse or lightship stations characteristic or the lighthouse or lightship stations link below the map is clicked, then either the the lighthouse light list and Google Map™ or the lightship station light list and Google Map™ page is displayed.

Light Lists Page

By clicking the Light Lists submenu item under the OTHER SECTIONS menu within the sidebar (only is displayed if the Light Lists sidebar isn't currently displayed), the Light Lists sidebar is displayed. The following describes what can be accessed on this sidebar:

OTHER SECTIONS - access other general sections of the Light Lists resource:

Overview - display the overview that you are reading right now.

Area Maps - display maps that statically and dynamically represent the light characteristics of the lightstations and lightships in any year in which light lists was researched.

Stations - display the states and provinces that have lighthouses and lightships, aliases for lighthouses, lightship stations, and aliases for lightships.

Radiobeacon Maps - display radiobeacon maps and tables for all radiobeacons, whether they are located at lightstations, lightships, or elsewhere for any year in which light lists was researched.

Special Radio Direction Finder Maps - display special radio direction finder maps and tables for all special radio direction finders, whether they are located at lightstations or elsewhere for any year in which light lists was researched.

Glossary - display in depth descriptions of information extracted from the light lists.

The light lists landing page has a link for every researched light list. For each light list that was researched, the year it was published, the group(s) responsible for creating it, and its name is displayed in a table format. By clicking the desired light list link, access to light list specific information can be accessed: a new page will be displayed that will show a table containing a row for each lighthouse's or lightship station's characteristic that was extracted from the light list. Each row contains four columns: 1) reference number of the lighthouse or lightship station, 2) lighthouse or lightship station name, 3) state's abbreviation where the lighthouse or lightship station is/was located, and 4) characteristic. By clicking on a lighthouse or lightship station name, a new Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ Page or Lightship Light List and Google Map™ Page will be displayed.

If a light list has been fully researched, then access to multiple types of information can be done. Additional sidebar items based on the type of information extracted from the light list will be displayed. Initially, when the light list is selected, the standard characteristic information is displayed. The following information can be accessed through these sidebar items:

  1. Clicking the LIGHT CHARACTERISTICS sidebar item will cause the light characteristics to be displayed as described above.
  2. Clicking the STRUCTURES AND OPTICS sidebar item will cause the focal plane, tower height, structure description, and optic information for lighthouses and focal plane(s), lightship description, location description, and optic(s) information for lightship stations to be displayed. However, if the light list did not contain optic information, then the sidebar item will be STRUCTURES only.
  3. Clicking the Audible Fog Signals sidebar item will cause the information for fog signals that can be heard (bells, horns, etc.) to be displayed. This sidebar item will only be displayed for light lists starting in 1852, the first year in which fog signal information was included in light lists. Based on the year of the light list, if the station had a radiobeacon that supported distance finding, it will be noted either in this section or the Other Signals section.
  4. Clicking the OTHER SIGNALS sidebar item will cause the information for other signals to be displayed; based on the research that was done, this applies only to radiobeacons and special radio direction calibration service for lighthouses and radiobeacons and submarine signals for lightship stations. This sidebar item will only be displayed for light lists starting in 1923 for lighthouses and 1908 for lightships, the approximate first year in which other signal information was included in light lists. Based on the year of the light list, if the station had a radiobeacon that supported distance finding, it will be noted either in this section or the Audible Fog Signals section.
  5. Clicking the Distance Finding sidebar item will cause the detailed graphical information for only those radiobeacons that support distance finding to be displayed. This sidebar item is only displayed for light lists starting in 1940, the approximate first year distance finding information was included in light lists, until 1961, the last year in which distance finding radiobeacons were explicitly described in the light lists, even though distance finding stations were supported upto 1974.
  6. Clicking the Radiobeacons sidebar item will cause the detailed radiobeacon information to be displayed. This sidebar item is only displayed for light lists starting in 1940, the approximate first year a radiobeacon map and associated tables were included in light lists, until 1996, the year in which radiobeacon beacons were last researched. In fact in 1996, there was only one radiobeacon left in the North Atlantic and Mid-Atlantic regions.
  7. Clicking the Spec. Radio Dir. Finders sidebar item will cause the detailed special radio direction calibration stations (only applicable to lighthouses) to be displayed. This sidebar item is only displayed for light lists starting in 1950, the first year special direction finder calibratons finder stations were included in light lists, until 1987, the year in which special radio direction calibration stations were last researched. Prior to 1950, special direction finder calibration service was provided by all radiobeacons; however, actual special direction finder calibration stations did not exist then.

Light List Characteristic Table

The Characteristics page shows the characteristic information in tabular form with the following columns:

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse or lightship station in the published light list where the lighthouse or lightship station was found.

Lighthouse/Ligthship

The lighthouse name or lightship station. The column will be Lighthouse if lightship stations were not in the light list.

ST

State's abbreviation where the lighthouse or lightship station is/was located.

Characteristic

The characteristic of the light.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Light List Structure and Optic Table

The Structures and Optics page shows the structure information and optic information in tabular form with the following columns for lighthouses:

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the lighthouse was found.

Lighthouse

The lighthouse name.

ST

State's abbreviation where the lighthouse is/was located.

Tower Height (in feet)

Either the height from the base of the structure to the center of the lantern (earlier light lists), or the height from the base of the structure to the top of the lantern (more modern light lists).

Focal Plane (in feet)

Height above mean high water. It is the distance from the water's surface to the optic's focal plane which is an imaginary line drawn straight out from the middle of the optic.

Structure

Description of the light tower and possibly any other structures and buildings.

IMPORTANT: Many of the older light lists described other structures or buildings that may have been near the actual lighthouse.

IMPORTANT: During the research of the Southern Atlantic and Gulf Coasts lights in 2014, it was found that the water depth around many of the applicable lights was contained in many of the light lists from 1865 through 1978. When this information was present, it was extracted from the light lists and displayed with the other structure information. Since the research for the Pacific coast and the Northern Atlantic lights was done in 2007 and 2011 respectively, the water depth will not be available in those regions.

Optic

Type of lens and possible illuminant. In the light lists researched so far, the type of optic used was not always present. In fact, the light lists after 1951 do not specify the optic information. Additionally, many of the the earlier light lists did not specify the illuminant. In these cases, the optic column will not be displayed. See Optic Types to see how the the optics were specified in the light lists and displayed on the Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ page.

If the light list also contained researched lightships, the Structures and Optics page also shows the structure information and optic information in tabular form with the following columns for lightships:

Ref #

Reference number of the lightship station in the published light list where the lightship station was found.

Lightship

The lightship station name.

ST

State's abbreviation where the lightship station was located.

Optic 1

Type of lens and possible illuminant for light 1. In the light lists researched so far, the type of optic used was not always present. In fact, the light lists after 1951 do not specify the optic information. Additionally, many of the the earlier light lists did not specify the illuminant. In these cases, the optic column will not be displayed. See Optic Types to see how the the optics were specified in the light lists and displayed on the Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ page. The column header is Focal Plane if only one light was documented in the light list.

Optic 2

Type of lens and possible illuminant for light 2. The column is only displayed if the second light was documented in the light list.

Focal Plane 1 (in feet)

Height above mean high water for the first light. It is the distance from the water's surface to the optic's focal plane which is an imaginary line drawn straight out from the middle of the optic. The column header is Focal Plane if only one light was documented in the light list.

Focal Plane 2 (in feet)

Height above mean high water for the second light. The column is only displayed if the second light was documented in the light list.

Structure

Description of the lightship station and possible nearby buoy.

Location

Description of the lightship station's location.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Light List Audible Fog Signal Table

The Audible Fog Signal page shows the fog signals which can be heard, such as a diaphragm or bell, in tabular form with the following columns:

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse or lightship station in the published light list where the lighthouse or lightship station was found.

Lighthouse

The lighthouse or lightship station name.

ST

State's abbreviation where the lighthouse or lightship station is/was located.

Primary Signal

The fog signal that is sounded normally under fog conditions. Depending on the year of the light list, the distance finding status (i.e., the sychronization with the station's radiobeacon) may be indicated.

Backup Signal

The fog signal that is sounded under fog conditions when the primary fog signal is inoperable.

All lighthouses that were researched in the light list are displayed even if the lighthouse did not transmit audible fog signals. Lightship stations always had audible fog signals.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Light List Other Signals Table

The Other Signals page shows the radiobeacon and special radio direction finder calibration station status in tabular form with the following columns:

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the lighthouse was found.

Lighthouse

The lighthouse name.

ST

State's abbreviation where the lighthouse is/was located.

Signal

The signal(s) that may be transmitted. If a radiobeacon signal is transmitted, the dash/dot characteristic and frequency will be displayed; if the radiobeacon is used for distance finding, then this may be indicated based on the year of the light list. If the lighthouse station is a special radio direction finder calibration station, then this will also be indicated. If a differential GPS (DGPS) signal is transmitted, the frequency, transmit rate, and range will be displayed preceded by DGPS Broadcast Site. If a lightship station was equipped with a submarine signal type of device, then it will also be indicated; even though a submarine signal is audible, it is still contained in this section.

All lighthouses that were researched in the light list are displayed even if the lighthouse did not support radiobeacon or direction finder transmissions. All lighthouse stations that were researched in the light list are displayed even if the lightship station did not support radiobeacon transmissions.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Light List Radiobeacon Table

The Radiobeacons page shows more detailed radiobeacon information in tabular form. Multiple tables may be displayed to show all of this information. Depending on the year of the light list, the type of information changed somewhat as described below.

IMPORTANT: Starting in 1991, each radiobeacon had its own entry in each light list. Thus, if a radiobeacon was located at a researched light, there would be one light list entry for the light itself, and another one for the radiobeacon. However, for completeness, the radiobeacon information was combined with the light information when displayed in this website.

IMPORTANT: All of the radiobeacons extracted from a light list are displayed on either the Radiobeacon Map (North Atlantic) Page, Radiobeacon Map (South Atlantic and Gulf Coast) Page,or the Radiobeacon Map (Pacific) Page. However, the Light List Radiobeacon Table only displays the radiobeacons associated with the researched lighthouses or lightship stations. Thus, radiobeacons that are located on a buoy, fog signal, or simply a standalone radiobeacon are not listed in this table.

The first table contains the sequenced radiobeacons with the following columns:

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse or lightship station in the published light list where the lighthouse was found.

Station Name

The lighthouse or lightship station name.

Freq. kHz

Frequency of the transmission in kilohertz. The foreground and background colors of the frequency help to easily distinguish the groups.

Group Seq.

Sequence within a group which is indicated by a Roman numeral. Stations with the same sequence numbers transmit during the same minute. The foreground and background colors of the frequency help to easily distinguish the groups.

Clear Weather Periods

Clear weather schedule of the characteristic code which dictates which 10 minute period(s) of the hour the characteristic is transmitted (only applicable for years earlier than 1964).

Distance Finding

Status on whether the radiobeacon supports distance finding (only applicable for years earlier than 1975).

Characteristic

The dash/dot characteristic of the transmission. The Morse code characters are displayed before the characteristic for years after 1970 as was shown in the light lists of those years.

Distance Class

Reliable average range of the transmission (only applicable for years earlier than 1961) which is always D (10 miles).

Range (Miles)

Range of the transmission in miles (only applicable for years after 1975; between 1960 and 1974, the transmission range for all marker radiobeacons was always the same).

Latitude

Latitude of the radiobeacon.

Longitude

Longitude of the radiobeacon.

The second table, which is only displayed if there are lightstations with continuous transmitting radiobeacons, contains the continuous radiobeacons with the following columns:

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse or lightship station in the published light list where the lighthouse was found.

Station Name

The lighthouse or lightship station station name.

Freq. kHz

Frequency of the transmission in kilohertz.

Characteristic

The dash/dot characteristic of the transmission. The Morse code characters are displayed before the characteristic for years after 1970 as was shown in the light lists of those years.

Distance Class

Reliable average range of the transmission (only applicable for years earlier than 1961) which may either be A (200 miles), B (100 miles), C (20 miles), or D (10 miles).

Range (Miles)

Range of the transmission in miles (only applicable for years after 1960).

Latitude

Latitude of the radiobeacon.

Longitude

Longitude of the radiobeacon.

The third table, which will not be displayed for light lists starting in 1979 since marker radiobeacons were no longer in use then, contains the marker radiobeacons with the following columns:

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the lighthouse was found.

Station Name

The lighthouse station name.

Freq. kHz

Frequency of the transmission in kilohertz.

Characteristic

The dash/dot characteristic of the transmission, in either graphic or text form depending on the light list year. The Morse code characters are displayed before the characteristic for years after 1970 as was shown in the light lists of those years. For years in which the characteristic was the same for all marker radiobeacons, the column is not displayed.

Distance Class

Reliable average range of the transmission (only applicable for years earlier than 1961) which may either be A (200 miles), B (100 miles), C (20 miles), or D (10 miles).

Range (Miles)

Range of the transmission in miles (only applicable for years after 1960).

Latitude

Latitude of the radiobeacon.

Longitude

Longitude of the radiobeacon.

Additional footnotes may be displayed below each of the first three types of radiobeacon tables exactly as they were specified for the listed radiobeacons; footnotes after 1960 are not listed.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Light List Distance Finding Station Table

The Distance Finding Stations page shows a more graphical layout of the distance finding synchronization in tabular form. Only the lighthouses or lightship stations that have radiobeacons that support distance finding are displayed in this table.

IMPORTANT: The 1940 light list was the first researched light list that included lightstations as distance finding stations. The only distance finding stations in the 1935 light list were lightships; however, the distance finding specifics were not included until the 1940 light list; therefore, 1940 will be used as the first year in which the DISTANCE FINDINGS sidebar menu item is shown.

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse or lightship station in the published light list where the lighthouse or lightship stationwas found.

Lighthouse/Lightship

The lighthouse name or lightship station.

State

State's abbreviation where the lighthouse or lightship station is/was located.

Distance Finding

A graphical display on how the radiobeacon and audible fog signal are synchronized for distance finding.

Although distance finding was supported through 1973, it was not graphically represented in the light list after 1961. Since the synchronization of the radiobeacon and the audible fog signal was not explicitly defined in the light list, assumptions were not made on how exactly the synchronization was done; thus, the distance finding will not be displayed for light lists after 1961.

Light List Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Station Table

The Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Stations page shows the lighthouses used for special radio direction finder calibration service in tabular form with the following columns:

IMPORTANT: 1950 was the first year in which special direction finder calibration stations were listed in the light lists. Therefore, 1950 is the first year in which the SPECIAL RADIO DIRECTION FINDERS sidebar menu item is shown. Lightships were never used as special direction finder calibration stations.

IMPORTANT: All of the special direction finder calibration stations extracted from a light list are displayed on the Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Stations Map (Atlantic and Gulf Coasts) Page. However, the Light List Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Station Table only displays the special radio direction finder calibration stations associated with the researched lighthouses. That is special radio direction finder calibration stations that are life boat stations, military bases, radiobeacons, and radio stations are not listed in this table.

Ref #

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the lighthouse was found.

Lighthouse

The lighthouse name.

Frequency (kHz)

The frequencies (1 or 2) of the transmission.

Latitude

Latitude where the antenna is located.

Longitude

Longitude where the antenna is located.

Characteristic

The dash/dot characteristic of the transmission. The Morse code characters are displayed before the characteristic for years prior to 1963 and after 1977 as was shown in the light lists of those years.

Remark

General remarks (if any) concerning the special radio direction finder calibration station.

Additional footnotes are displayed below the table which note how requests for calibration service could have been made at the different stations.

Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ Page

This page shows the light list information for a selected lighthouse. The light characteristic(s) for the lighthouse are always displayed. For lighthouses whose historical light lists have been researched, this will also include optic and structure information about the lighthouse as well as any audible fog signal, other signals, radiobeacon, distance finding, and special radio direction finder calibration station information. The information that is displayed was extracted from various published light lists. Additionally, a Google Map™ that shows the location of the lighthouse (throughout its history for researched lighthouses) will be displayed underneath the tabular light list information. This page is accessible through the following methods:

  1. Clicking on a small black or purple rectangle on an area map.
  2. Clicking on a lighthouse name in an accessible light list (U.S. state, Canadian province, or U.S.Commonwealth light list).

Since historical Great Lakes light lists have not yet been researched, historical light list information will not be initially available for those lighthouses in that region. Additionally, historical light lists for the Canadian provinces will not be researched. In these cases, the page will only contain the 2004 lighthouse characteristic and a Google Map™ for its current location. Of course it is possible that some of the Great Lakes lighthouses have been decommissioned and will not be displayed until the region is researched.

If a lighthouse has a modern replacement, its characteristic, optic, and structure information will still be displayed. However, the information for all modern characteristics will be shown in italics.

Lighthouse Light List Characteristics Table

The first table on the page shows the characteristic information extracted from the public light lists. The table displays the following columns:

Year

Year(s) in which the modification was found in the published light lists (i.e., the characteristic and reference number were all the same and there were no missing light lists in the year range). This column is not applicable for non-researched U.S. and Canadian lighthouses.

Characteristic

A description of the characteristic comprised of its characteristic type, light distance, flash and/or eclipse durations, sectors, and obstructions. The Characteristic column header is actually a link, and when clicked will display a graphical representation of each characteristic throughout the history of the lighthouse.

Reference Number

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the information was found. This column is not applicable for non-researched U.S. and Canadian lighthouses; instead, the 2004 reference number will be displayed immediately below the lighthouse name that is displayed at the top of the page.

For non-researched lighthouses, the table will be comprised of only one row. For researched lighthouses, there is one row for each unique characteristic and reference number combination. Additional rows are added when either any aspect of the characteristic changes or the reference number changes in the following year. However, subsequent rows only display the changed information; the columns whose values did not change from one year to the next will be blank to indicate a "no change". However, since not all of the light lists may have been researched, there will be gaps in the years. In these cases, your Show Missing Light Lists profile setting dictates how this gap is handled. If the setting is set to Yes, then a new row is displayed indicating the years the light lists were not available for research followed by another row that will always display the values of all columns to make the table more readable even if the values did not change. If you do not have a profile, the missing gaps are not displayed.

Graphical Characteristic Page

The base light patterns describe how each characteristic has a graphical representation. You can access a page that displays the exact graphical representations of characteristics through two methods. First, by clicking the characteristic header in the Lighthouse Characteristics Table on the Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ Page, all of the lighthouse's historical characteristics will be displayed in sequential order. Second, by clicking on a specific characteristic under the characteristic header in the Lighthouse Characteristics Table on the Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ Page, the selected characteristic will be displayed.

NOTE: When displaying the graphical representations for all of the historical characteristics of a lighthouse, it may appear that the same characteristic may be drawn multiple sequential times. This may be due to the light distances, obstruction degrees, or sector degrees changing (which have no impact on the display) from one characteristic to the next, or the flash/eclipse durations changing from a known to unknown state, or visa versa, between consecutive characteristics.

There are some characteristics, particularly those in the very early years and the more recent years since the U.S. Guard Coast took over the responsibility of the lighthouses (particularly starting around the 1960s), where the duration of certain phases of a characteristic is not specified. This is particularly true of flashing type characteristics, especially the single-flash characteristic. You can tell a flashing characteristic has an unknown flash length if the duration of the flash is not described in the characteristic. For example, the characteristic Fl W 4s. fl 0.4. W6. specifies a 0.4 second flash, but the Fl W 4s. W6. characteristic does not specify the length of the flash. When the flash/eclipse durations are not known, then flash/eclipse duration approximations are made based on known flash/eclipse duration lengths of similar characteristics of the lighthouse that may be known prior to or after the characteristic in question. The characteristic definition fully explains on how the determination of unknown flash/eclipse durations can be done.

Characteristic Simulation

IMPORTANT: Simulation can only be performed on a single characteristic. That is, if all the characteristics for a lighthouse or lightship station are graphically represented by clicking the Characteristic header on the lighthouse's or lightship station's characteristic table, only the characteristic patterns are displayed.

IMPORTANT: While simulation of lightship characteristics can be done, it really doesn't make that much sense since they were almost all fixed characteristics. If the lightship had two lights, then both the first and second lights will be simulated.

By clicking the Start Simulation that is displayed underneath the characteristic pattern, you can simulate the characteristic. Once this button is selected, a rectangular area is displayed below the button area that graphically represents the characteristic at a given moment in time during the characteristic's period. A timer is displayed above the button area that shows the elapsed time within the current period. Multiple periods may be represented in the characteristic pattern. As the timer elapses, a tick marker is displayed underneath the pattern indicating the current position within the characteristic. Each time a period is completed, the timer is reset. Once the last full period that is displayed in the characteristic pattern is reached, the tick marker will go back to the first period. The following buttons allow you to do the following:

Stop Simulation - stop the simulation completely. The timer, tick marker, and rectangular simulation area will be cleared, and the Restart Simulation button will then be displayed.

Pause Simulation - pause the simulation. The timer, tick marker, and rectangular simulation area will be frozen, and the Restart Simulation and Resume Simulation buttons will then be displayed.

Resume Simulation - resume the simulation where it was last paused. The Stop Simulation and Pause Simulation buttons will then be displayed.

The rectangular simulation area represents the light in 360 degrees. The background is displayed in black to represent night! Sectors and obstructions are represented. If the light distances of the sectors are different, then this will be reflected. The 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees position are shown in this area.

NOTE: A fixed characteristic can be simulated, but only the Stop Simulation button is applicable since this characteristic does not have a period.

IMPORTANT: The performance of this simulation is explained in the browser compatibilty. It is not the intention for the simulation to keep exact time, but hopefully it should be fairly accurate. If you use Internet Explorer, anything before version 9 will not work as desired. Upgrading to the latest versions of the different browsers tested seems to work the best.

Lighthouse Light List Optics and Structures Table

The second table on the page shows the optic and structure information extracted from the public light lists. The table displays the following columns:

Year

Year(s) in which the modification was found in the published light lists (i.e., the optic, tower height, focal plane, structure description, and reference number were all the same and there were no missing light lists in the year range). This column is not applicable for lighthouses that have not been fully researched.

Optic

Type of lens and possible illuminant. In the light lists researched so far, the type of optic used was not always present. In fact, the light lists after 1951 do not specify the optic information. Additionally, many of the the earlier light lists did not specify the illuminant. See Optic Types to see how the the optics were specified in the light lists and displayed on the Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ page.

Tower Height (in feet)

Either the height from the base of the structure to the center of the lantern (earlier light lists), or the height from the base of the structure to the top of the lantern (more modern light lists). It is difficult to tell the exact year when the tower height meaning changed, but it is believed to be around 1915.

Focal Plane (in feet)

Height above mean high water. It is the distance from the water's surface to the optic's focal plane which is an imaginary line drawn straight out from the middle of the optic.

Structure Description

Description of the light tower and possibly any other structures and buildings.

IMPORTANT: Many of the older light lists described other structures or buildings that may have been near the actual lighthouse.

NOTE: There are several lighthouses (such as Plymouth in Massachusetts, Matinicus Rock in Maine, Three Sisters of Nauset in Massachusetts, and Baker’s Island in Massachuesetts that had during their operation multiple towers showning their own lights. The phrase [Shared structures between towers.] will be included at the end of the structure description during those years these lighthouses had more than one tower showing a light to denote this situation; this phrase was not included in the light lists. Additionally for these lighthouses that have multiple towers, there may be edited phrases enclosed in brackets when needed to help better clarify the description.

Reference Number

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the information was found. This column is not applicable for lighthouses that have not been fully researched.

For non-researched lighthouses, the table will be comprised of one row only if the lighthouse has an optic or structure; otherwise, the table is not displayed. For researched lighthouses that do not have any historical optics or structures, this table is not displayed. For researched lighthouses that have historical optics or structures, there is one row for each unique optic, structure, and reference number combination. Additional rows are added when either the optic, tower height, focal plane, structure description, or reference number changes in the following year. However, subsequent rows only display the changed information; the columns whose values did not change from one year to the next will be blank to indicate a "no change". However, since not all of the light lists may have been researched, there will be gaps in the years. In these cases, your Show Missing Light Lists profile setting dictates how this gap is handled. If the setting is set to Yes, then a new row is displayed indicating the years the light lists were not available for research followed by another row that will always display the values of all columns to make the table more readable even if the values did not change. If you do not have a profile, the missing gaps are not displayed.

Lighthouse Light List Audible Fog Signal Table

IMPORTANT: Fog signal information was not included in public light lists until 1852.

The third table on the page shows the audible fog signal information extracted from the public light lists. This table is only applicable for for U.S. states and commonwealths. The table displays the following columns:

Year

Year(s) in which the modification was found in the published light lists (i.e., the primary signal, backup signal, and reference number were all the same and there were no missing light lists in the year range). This column is not applicable for lighthouses that have not been fully researched.

Primary Signal

Description of the fog signal which includes the type of fog signal and the characteristic of the signal.

Backup Signal

Description of the fog signal which is used in case the primary signal is not operation.

Reference Number

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the information was found. This column is not applicable for lighthouses that have not been fully researched.

From 1953 through 1961, radiobeacon distance finding was used at a some of the lighthouses which synchronized the the audible fog signal with a radiobeacon. If this is the case, a link within the primary signal description will be shown that will allow you to display a chart that shows this syncrhonization as it appeared in the light lists.

NOTE: Even though distance finding stations existed after 1961, their synchronization characteristics were only fully described in the light lists between 1940 and 1960. It probably could be assumed that the synchronization between the audible fog signal and radiobeacon did not change after 1961. However, since it is not factually described in the light list, a distance finding chart will only be accessible from 1940 through 1961.

NOTE: Starting in 1963, the radiobeacon information (frequency and characteristic code) were no longer listed in the per lighthouse section of the light list. While the lighthouse was listed as having a radiobeacon, a chart at the beginning of the light list had to be accessed to extract this information. However, this information was not even contained in the researched 1963 light list; this may have been due to the radiobeacon insert being possibly removed from the light list at an early date.

For non-researched lighthouses, the table will be comprised of one row only if the lighthouse has an audible fog signal; otherwise, this table is not displayed. For researched lighthouses that do not have any historical audible fog signals, this table is displayed. For researched lighthouses that have historical audible fog signals, there is one row for each unique primary signal, backup signal, and reference number combination. Additional rows are added when either the primary signal, backup signal, or reference number changes in the following year. However, subsequent rows only display the changed information; the columns whose values did not change from one year to the next will be blank to indicate a "no change". However, since not all of the light lists may have been researched, there will be gaps in the years. In these cases, your Show Missing Light Lists profile setting dictates how this gap is handled. If the setting is set to Yes, then a new row is displayed indicating the years the light lists were not available for research followed by another row that will always display the values of all columns to make the table more readable even if the values did not change.

Lighthouse Light List Other Signal Table

The fourth possible table on the page shows additional signal information extracted from the public light lists. This table is only applicable for U.S. states whose historical light lists have been researched. The table displays the following columns:

Year

Year(s) in which the modification was found in the published light lists (i.e., the radiobeacon and special radio direction finder calibration station and reference number were all the same and there were no missing light lists in the year range).

Signal

Description of the signal which is a radiobeacon and/or a special direction finder calibration station.

Reference Number

Reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the information was found.

The table will not be displayed for non-researched lighthouses or for researched lighthouses that did not have these other signals extracted from the light lists. For researched lighthouses, there is one row for each unique signal and reference number combination. Additional rows are added when either the signal or reference number changes in the following year. However, subsequent rows only display the changed information; the columns whose values did not change from one year to the next will be blank to indicate a "no change". However, since not all of the light lists may have been researched, there will be gaps in the years. In these cases, your Show Missing Light Lists profile setting dictates how this gap is handled. If the setting is set to Yes, then a new row is displayed indicating the years the light lists were not available for research followed by another row that will always display the values of all columns to make the table more readable even if the values did not change. If you do not have a profile, the missing gaps are not displayed.

This other signal information was not included on public light lists until around 1923.

Google Map™

A Google Map™ that shows the location of the lighthouse throughout its history will be displayed underneath the tabular light list information. For non-researched lighthouses, only the current location of the lighthouse will be represented on the map. Of course a Google Map™ shows current satellite and street maps, but you should still get an appreciation of where the lighthouse is/was located although its surrounding area could have changed over the years.

When a Google Map™ is displayed, a legend is shown below the map denoting each position of the lighthouse throughout its history (only applicable for researched lighthouses); this includes the year range for the lighthouse as well as a possible comment (assumptions, etc.). These are not necessarily the years that the lighthouse existed at the location, but rather the years when the light was active. For example, the years listed for the Statue of Liberty are 1886 through 1902, the years it was active; of course the Statue of Liberty still exists at the same location!

The determined coordinates for lighthouses that have long been destroyed, moved, or have been replaced but were not rebuilt on the same position may be slightly inaccurate. This is due to the lack of precision of the coordinates as stated in the published light lists. However, in some cases a historical description of where the lighthouse was located or historical pictures may be helpful in determining previous lighthouse locations. In the cases where it could not be determined whether the lighthouse was rebuilt at the same location, it will be assumed that it was; while this may not always be the case, more than likely a replaced lighthouse was either built at the exact location as the previous lighthouse or very close to it. Note(s) in the legend below the Google Map™ will state whether the displayed lighthouse position may have been approximated or assumed.

The accuracy of the coordinates for most of the existing lighthouses in the United States should be excellent (usually within plus or minus 20 feet). However, there are some lighthouses that have been replaced with modern lights where the exact coordinates are not known due to the precision of the coordinate information obtained from the light lists. Please Contact Us about any coordinates that may not be correct; please ensure that these coordinates are accurate to plus or minus 30 feet.

Lightship Light List and Google Map™ Page

IMPORTANT: While lighthouses have been assigned classic and modern statuses, the lightships are always viewed as classic.

This page shows the light list information for a selected lightship. The light characteristic, optic and structure, and audible fog signal information is always displayed. The light list other signals and radiobeacon information is displayed only for the applicable years. The information that is displayed was extracted from various published light lists. Additionally, a Google Map™ that shows the location of the lightship throughout its history will be displayed underneath the tabular light list information. This page is accessible through the following methods:

  1. Clicking on a small black rectangle on an area map.
  2. Clicking on a lightship station name in an accessible light list (U.S. state lightship stations only).

During the research of Pacific coast lighthouses, lightship information was not extracted from the light list. Thus, both the Pacific Coast and Great Lakes lightships still need to be researched and included. While there were a few Canadian lightships, they will not be presented on the website.

Lightship Light List Characteristics Table

The display of lightship characteristics, the first table on the page, is displayed almost exactly the same as lighthouse characteristics as described in section Lighthouse Light List Characteristics Table except for the following:

For the light lists researched through 1927, two lights may have been in operation and listed as such. In these cases, the characteristic is listed as Light 1:, Light 2: where:

is the characteristic for the first light.

is the characteristic for the second light.

is any additional information regarding the lights on the lightship.

In various light lists the candle color for the light was listed which will be displayed after the light distance in the format (# cp) where '#' is the candlepower.

Lightship Light List Optics and Structures Table

The second table on the page shows the optic and structure information extracted from the public light lists. The table displays the following columns:

Year

Year(s) in which the modification was found in the published light lists (i.e., the optic(s), focal plane(s), structure description, location, and reference number were all the same and there were no missing light lists in the year range). This column is not applicable for lightships that have not been fully researched.

Optic 1

Type of lens and possible illuminant for the first light. In the light lists researched so far, the type of optic used was not always present. In fact, the light lists after 1951 do not specify the optic information. Additionally, many of the the earlier light lists did not specify the illuminant. See Optic Types to see how the the optics were specified in the light lists and displayed on the Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ page. The column header will actually be Optic starting with the 1931 light lists since the second optic was no longer supported in the light list.

Optic 2

Type of lens and possible illuminant for the second light. This column will not exist starting with the 1931 light lists since the second optic was no longer supported in the light list.

Focal Plane 1 (in feet)

Height above mean high water for the first light. It is the distance from the water's surface to the optic's focal plane which is an imaginary line drawn straight out from the middle of the optic. The column header will actually be Focal Plane starting with the 1931 light lists since the second optic was no longer supported in the light list.

Focal Plane 2 (in feet)

Height above mean high water for the second light. This column will not exist starting with the 1931 light lists since the second optic was no longer supported in the light list.

Description

Description of the lightship and possible nearby buoys.

Location

Description of the location of the lightship.

Reference Number

Reference number of the lightship in the published light list where the information was found.

There is one row for each unique optics, focal planes, structure, location and reference number combination. Additional rows are added when either the optics, focal planes, structure description, location, or reference number changes in the following year. However, subsequent rows only display the changed information; the columns whose values did not change from one year to the next will be blank to indicate a "no change". However, since not all of the light lists may have been researched, there will be gaps in the years. In these cases, your Show Missing Light Lists profile setting dictates how this gap is handled. If the setting is set to Yes, then a new row is displayed indicating the years the light lists were not available for research followed by another row that will always display the values of all columns to make the table more readable even if the values did not change. If you do not have a profile, the missing gaps are not displayed.

Lightship Light List Audible Fog Signal Table

IMPORTANT: Fog signal information was not included in public light lists until 1852.

IMPORTANT: While submarine signals are audible, they were included in the other signals table.

The display of lightship audible fog signals, the third table on the page, is displayed exactly the same as lighthouse audible fog signals as described in section Lighthouse Light List Audible Fog Signal Table.

Lightship Light List Other Signal Table

The radiobeacon information was not included on public light lists until around 1923. The submarine signal was listed in the researched light list 1908-1935.

The display of lightship other signals, the fourth table on the page, is displayed almost exactly the same as lighthouse other signal as described in section Lighthouse Light List Other Signal Table except for the following:

The Submarine Signal will be displayed for the light lists of 1908-1935.

Google Map™

A Google Map™ that shows the location of the lightship throughout its history will be displayed underneath the tabular light list information. When a Google Map™ is displayed, a legend is shown below the map denoting each position of the lightship throughout its history; this includes the year range for the lightship as well as a possible comment (assumptions, etc.). These are the years when the light was active. For example, many lightship stations were vacant during the Civil War and World War II.

The determined coordinates for lightships and the years at those coordinates are based mainly on assumptions. These values should NOT be treated as accurate. Rather, it is attempting to show how it was perceived the lightship was repositioned; it was basically impossible to determine when the lightships were moved.

Light Station Pages

By clicking the Stations menu item (only displayed if the Stations sidebar is not displayed) under the OTHER SECTIONS menu on the sidebar, the Stations sidebar is displayed. The following describes what can be accessed on this sidebar:

LIGHT STATION STATES - display the U.S. states that have had lighthouse and lightship stations, and U.S. commonwealths and Canadian provinces that have had lighthouses.

LIGHTHOUSE ALIASES - display the lighthouse aliases (i.e., the alternative lighthouse names) that you may be more familiar with.

LIGHTSHIP STATIONS - display the lightships that existed in the United States and provide access to obtain detailed information about these lightship stations.

LIGHTSHIP ALIASES - display the lightship station aliases (i.e., the alternative lightship station names) that you may be more familiar with.

OTHER SECTIONS - access other general sections of the Light Lists resource:

Overview - display the overview that you are reading right now.

Area Maps - display maps that statically and dynamically represent the light characteristics of the lightstations and lightships in any year in which light lists was researched.

Light Lists - display light list related information (characteristics, structures and optics, audible fog signals, other signals, radiobeacon, distance finding, and special radio direction finder calibration) for the researched light lists.

Stations - display the states and provinces that have lighthouses and lightships, aliases for lighthouses, lightship stations, and aliases for lightships.

Radiobeacon Maps - display radiobeacon maps and tables for all radiobeacons, whether they are located at lightstations, lightships, or elsewhere for any year in which light lists was researched.

Special Radio Direction Finder Maps - display special radio direction finder maps and tables for all special radio direction finders, whether they are located at lightstations or elsewhere for any year in which light lists was researched.

Glossary - display in depth descriptions of information extracted from the light lists.

Light Station States Page

The Lighthouses and Lightships in U.S. States, and Lighthouses in U.S. Commonwealths and Canadian Provinces page allows you to access historical light list information for a particular U.S. state, or 2004 light list information for a particular U.S. state, Canadian province or United States commonwealth. This section is divided into multiple subsections. The light list research status for the selected state determines what information will be displayed when the state link is clicked:

  1. If the state has not been researched yet, then a new page will be displayed that shows a table containing a row for each active lighthouse in the 2004 light list. Each row contains three columns: 1) lighthouse name, 2) characteristic, and 3) reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the lighthouse was found. By clicking on a lighthouse name, a new Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ Page will be displayed.
  2. If the state has been fully researched, then a new page will be displayed that shows a table containing all of the lighthouses and lightship stations that were researched in the state. Each row contains two columns: 1) lighthouse or lightship station name, and 2) established date as gleaned mainly from the light lists (other resources other than the light lists may have been used to validate the established dates, but it appears the date was usually within a year as specified in other resources). By clicking on a lighthouse or lightship station name, a new Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ Page or Lightship Light List and Google Map™ Page will be displayed. Since it will be an ongoing process to locate hard-to-find light lists, there will be gaps in the years of the light lists which hopefully can be closed in the future. However, the years in which the light lists have not been researched yet will be appropriately identified below the displayed table.

For fully researched lighthouses and lightship stations, the lighthouse or lightship station may have been deactivated one or more times; the deactivation date(s) are displayed within the displayed light list information. The light lists never mention the date a lighthouse or lightship station was deactivated since it would no longer be in the light list! For many of the lighthouses and lightship stations the deactivation date has been well documented and will be displayed as such.

However, there are some lighthouses where the deactivation is not well documented or is not documented at all. Well documented deactivation dates almost always apply to when the classic lighthouse was deactivated and not when the modern replacement was deactivated. In these cases a circa year will be choosen. For example, suppose a lighthouse was listed in the 1982 light list but not in the 1987 light list. We can assume that the lighthouse was deactivated anywhere from 1982 to 1987. Therefore, a circa year (a guess) of 1985 may be choosen for the deactivation date. When displaying the lighthouse information for a specific researched lighthouse, the circa deactivation dates are mentioned in the legend of the Google Map™ that denotes each position of the lighthouse throughout its history.

Currently the research status of New York and Pennsylvania lighthouses is in a partial state. That is the lighthouses and lightship stations on the Great Lakes in those two states have not been fully researched yet. You can choose whether you want to display only those lighthouses and lightship stations that have been fully researched, or only those lighthouses that have been researched only in 2004; the stations displayed using both of these methods is mutually exclusive.

One of the subsections contains a list of the Canadian provinces and the United States commonwealths (i.e., areas in which historical light list research will not be done) where 2004 textual light list information can be displayed in tabular form. By clicking the desired province or commonwealth, a new page will be displayed that shows a table containing a row for each active lighthouse in the 2004 light list. Each row contains three columns: 1) lighthouse name, 2) characteristic, and 3) reference number of the lighthouse in the published light list where the lighthouse was found. By clicking on a lighthouse name, a new Lighthouse Light List and Google Map™ Page will be displayed.

If a lighthouse has a modern replacement, its characteristic will still be displayed in the light lists presented in tabular form. However, the information for all modern characteristics will be shown in italics. A modern status is not applicable for lightship stations.

Lighthouse Aliases Page

You can display alias names for lighthouses that have been included in the database by clicking the LIGHTHOUSE ALIASES menu item on the Stations sidebar. The following information is displayed for each alias in a table format:

# - table row sequential count.

Lighthouse - name of the lighthouse used in website database.

ST/PR - abbreviation for the state or province where the lighthouse is located.

CTRY - abbreviation for the country where the lighthouse is located.

Alias - an alias for the lighthouse.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Lightship Stations Page

IMPORTANT: The information presented about lightships is about the lightship stations and not the lightships themselves. That is, it makes no attempt to list the different vessels that may have existed at the station. Rather the light lists presented the lightship information on a station basis; however, it did describe the physical structure of the lightship that was supposed to be located at the station during that year. Of course, lightships were replaced or were relieved for maintenance during any given year.

NOTE: Lightship stations were listed in the 1839 and 1849 light lists. However, they did not specify the characteristics or coordinates and, thus, were not included on the website.

You can list all of the lightships that ever existed in the United States by clicking the LIGHTSHIP STATIONS menu item on the Stations sidebar. The following information is displayed for each lightship station in a table format:

# - table row sequential count.

Station Name - name of the lightship station used in website database. If the lightship station has been researched and it was listed at least once in a researched light list, then it will be displayed as a link to display detailed information about the lightship station. If the lightship station existed in an area that was researched but no listings of the lightship station were found in the researched light lists, then an asterisk will be displayed next to the lightship station name; this is possible since there were some lightship stations that existed and were deactivated before 1858, the first researched light list that included the required information for each lightship station, or the lightship may have existed for such a short time that an applicable light list could not be obtained for research.

State - state where the lightship station was located.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Lightship Station Aliases Page

You can display alias names for lightships that have been included in the database by clicking the LIGHTSHIP ALIASES menu item on the Stations sidebar. The following information is displayed for each alias in a table format:

# - table row sequential count.

Station Name - name of the lightship station used in website database.

ST - abbreviation for the state where the lightship was located.

Alias - an alias for the lightship.

You can sort the information displayed in the table in ascending or descending order by clicking those columns that have up and down arrows display in the column headers.

Radiobeacon Map Pages

By clicking the Radiobeacon Maps menu item (only displayed if the Radiobeacons sidebar is not displayed) under the OTHER SECTIONS menu on the sidebar, the Radiobeacons sidebar is displayed that will provide access to different areas for the maps. The following describes what can be accessed on this sidebar:

NORTH ATLANTIC COAST - display a radiobeacon map for the North Atlantic Coast radiobeacons (including non-lightstations) and associated tables for the radiobeacons displayed on the map for any applicable researched year.

SOUTH ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS - display a radiobeacon map for the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast radiobeacons (including non-lightstations) and associated tables for the radiobeacons displayed on the map for any applicable researched year.

PACIFIC COAST - display a radiobeacon map for the Pacific Coast radiobeacons (including non-lightstations) and associated tables for the radiobeacons displayed on the map for any applicable researched year.

OTHER SECTIONS - access other general sections of the Light Lists resource:

Overview - display the overview that you are reading right now.

Area Maps - display maps that statically and dynamically represent the light characteristics of the lightstations and lightships in any year in which light lists was researched.

Light Lists - display light list related information (characteristics, structures and optics, audible fog signals, other signals, radiobeacon, distance finding, and special radio direction finder calibration) for the researched light lists.

Stations - display the states and provinces that have lighthouses and lightships, aliases for lighthouses, lightship stations, and aliases for lightships.

Special Radio Direction Finder Maps - display special radio direction finder maps and tables for all special radio direction finders, whether they are located at lightstations or elsewhere for any year in which light lists was researched.

Glossary - display in depth descriptions of information extracted from the light lists.

By clicking any of the above radiobeacon-related sidebar menu items (i.e., not in the OTHER SECTIONS menu), an applicable map is displayed that shows the location of the radiobeacons and differential GPS (DGPS) broadcast sites (only applicable for 1995 and 1996) in that area. Above the map are buttons which display the years for which researched radiobeacon/DGPS information can be shown. The initial year displayed is the latest year in which radiobeacons or DPGS broadcast sites were extracted from the light lists. Simply by clicking another year button, you can display the radiobeacons and DGPS broadcast sites for the selected year. If the background of the button is blue, then this denotes that a light list for that year has been researched and it contains the researched radiobeacon and/or DGPS information. The text within these navigation buttons are white to denote when they can be accessed to view the information for a different year. The text within a year button is red to denote the year that is currently displayed. If the background of the button is light gray, then this denotes that the radiobeacon/DGPS information has not been researched; thus, the button is inactive.

While viewing a map, you can move the cursor around and position it over a radiobeacon or DGPS symbol that denotes the position of the radiobeacon station on the map. When the cursor is positioned over a radiobeacon or DGPS symbol, the station name along with other station information based on the radiobeacon type and/or DGPS broadcast site will popup.

DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION: The radiobeacon name and and related information popup box was developed using overLIB popup boxes. If you are a website developer and would like to show better popup boxes than the browser default, you can use this Javascript library free of charge.

NOTE: When radiobeacon information was specified in the light list section of a published light list, there was normally a corresponding radiobeacon map with a list of radiobeacons in tabular form in the reference section at the beginning or end of the light list. However, in the 1931 and 1935 Atlantic coast light lists and the 1945 Pacific coast light list that were researched, the map was missing (either taken out or was never in). For these years, the radiobeacon map is not available for display since the table format did not contain all of the required information needed to represent the map. Some light lists contained just the radiobeacon map and not the list of radiobeacons in tabular form, such was the case for the 1961-1970 Pacific coast light lists (radiobeacon information was not included in 1964), the radiobeacon map is available for display since the map always contained all of the necessary information. In 1995 DGPS information was also included on the beacon maps of the light lists.

NOTE: In a few circumstances, there were discrepencies between the radiobeacon map and the tabular list of radiobeacons. In these circumstances, the table was deemed more reliable. For example, in 1943 many lightships were included on the radiobeacon map but not in the table. Apparently the radiobeacon map was not updated since most of the lightships on the map were deactivated. Therefore, the radiobeacon map displayed on the website will more accurately reflect the radiobeacon stations that are in the table.

Several tables may be displayed below the map that contain the detailed information for each radiobeacon on the map. The first table contains the sequenced radiobeacons showing the following information for each radiobeacon:

Freq. kHz - frequency of the transmission in kilohertz. The foreground and background colors of the frequency match the symbol on the map that is used to represent the radiobeacon.

Group Seq. - sequence within a group which is indicated by a Roman numeral. Stations with the same sequence numbers transmit during the same minute. The foreground and background colors of the group sequence number match the symbol on the map that is used to represent the radiobeacon.

Clear Weather Periods - clear weather schedule which dictates which 10 minute period(s) of the hour the characteristic is transmitted (only applicable for years earlier than 1964; however, for 1963, the clear weather schedule was not applicable to the Atlantic or Gulf coasts).

Station Name - name of the station where the radiobeacon is located.

Station Type - type of radiobeacon station which may be either Buoy, Float, Fog Signal, Lighthouse, Lightship, or Radiobeacon.

Distance Finding - status on whether the radiobeacon supports distance finding (only applicable for years earlier than 1975).

Characteristic - the dash/dot characterisitc of the transmission. The Morse code characters are displayed before the characteristic for years after 1970 as was shown in the light lists of those years. It is possible that the characteristic for years prior to when the Morse code characters were displayed may have omitted the spaces between the characters that were seen once the Morse code was shown; no assumptions were made that the spaces were missing.

Distance Class - reliable average range of the transmission (only applicable for years earlier than 1961) which may either be A (200 miles), B (100 miles), C (20 miles), or D (10 miles).

Range (Miles) - range of the transmission in miles (only applicable for years after 1960).

Latitude - latitude of the radiobeacon.

Longitude - longitude of the radiobeacon.

The second table contains the continuous radiobeacons showing the following information for each radiobeacon:

Freq. kHz - frequency of the transmission in kilohertz. The foreground color is always white and the background color is always black for the frequency which always matches the symbol on the map that is used to represent the radiobeacon.

Station Name - name of the station where the radiobeacon is located.

Station Type - type of radiobeacon station which may be either Buoy, Float, Fog Signal, Lighthouse, Lightship, or Radiobeacon.

Characteristic - the dash/dot characteristic of the transmission. The Morse code characters are displayed before the characteristic for years after 1970 as was shown in the light lists of those years. It is possible that the characteristic for years prior to when the Morse code characters were displayed may have omitted the spaces between the characters that were seen once the Morse code was shown; no assumptions were made that the spaces were missing.

Distance Class - reliable average range of the transmission (only applicable for years earlier than 1961) which may either be A (200 miles), B (100 miles), C (20 miles), or D (10 miles).

Range (Miles) - range of the transmission in miles (only applicable for years after 1960).

Latitude - latitude of the radiobeacon.

Longitude - longitude of the radiobeacon.

The third table, which only exists for years prior to 1979, contains the marker radiobeacons showing the following information for each radiobeacon:

Freq. kHz - frequency of the transmission in kilohertz.

Station Name - name of the station where the radiobeacon is located.

Station Type - type of radiobeacon station which may be either Buoy, Float, Fog Signal, Lighthouse, Lightship, or Radiobeacon.

Characteristic - a description of the transmitted character (only applicable for years prior to 1964; for years starting in 1964, a description of the characteristic is displayed below this table which is applicable to all of the marker radiobeacons).

Distance Class - reliable average range of the transmission (only applicable for years earlier than 1961) which is always D (10 miles).

Latitude - latitude of the radiobeacon.

Longitude - longitude of the radiobeacon.

The fourth table contains the differential GPS (DGPS) broadcast sites. This information was only found in the 1995 and 1996 light lists, and it is not known if and when DGPS was deactivated. The following information is displayed for each DGPS broadcast site:

Broadcast Site - name of the site where the DGPS transmitter is located.

Freq. (kHz) - frequency of the transmission in kilohertz.

Trans. Rate (BPS) - modulation data rate for the transmitter which can be 50, 100, or 200 bits per second (bps).

Latitude - latitude of the radiobeacon.

Longitude - longitude of the radiobeacon.

Range (n.m.) - range of DGPS transmitting site which varies from 35 to 300 nautical miles.

Radiobeacon ID # - radiobeacon ID number (no description given in light list).

Starting in 1991, all radiobeacons were listed as their own references (i.e., had their own reference numbers) in the reference section of the light list. That is, if a radiobeacon was located at a lightstation (lighthouse or lightship), there would be two separate entries in the light list, one for the light, location, structure, and fog signal information, and another for the radiobeacon. Thus, the Station Type for all of the radiobeacons starting in 1991 will always be Radiobeacon.

Additional footnotes may be displayed below each of the first three types of radiobeacon tables exactly as they were specified for the listed radiobeacons; footnotes after 1960 are not listed.

A radiobeacon/DGPS map can have two types of insets:

If it is determined that there are no radiobeacon/DGPS stations within an inset, the inset is not displayed.

1. Tightly grouped radiobeacon/DGPS stations - on some maps the radiobeacon/DGPS stations are so tightly together that they overlap. In these cases, a rectangular inset is displayed that does not show the radiobeacon/DGPS stations that actually exist within the inset. By clicking within this inset, the map of only this selected area is displayed with the tables only showing the radiobeacon/DGPS stations of this clicked inset. While on the map page that contains the inset, even though the radiobeacons and DGPS broadcast sites are not displayed in the marked inset, they are listed in the four tables described above.

2. Outside the map area - on some maps the radiobeacon/DGPS stations within the overall area are so far outside the area represented on the map that a rectangular inset is needed. For example, on the Pacific coast map there is an inset for Hawaii since Hawaii does not fall within the map it is represented on. The radiobeacon/DGPS stations are displayed in these types of insets since the radiobeacon/DGPS stations are grouped far enough apart.

On a map that has the tightly grouped radiobeacon/DGPS stations type of inset(s), a clickable button is displayed just above the map. When the default map is displayed for an area or a new year, the map is displayed in inset mode. By clicking the Hide Insets button, you can display the map without the insets to see just how tightly grouped the radiobeacon/DGPS stations are in some areas. When the map is displayed in this all stations displayed mode, the Show Insets button is displayed instead of the Hide Insets button which allows you to toggle back to the inset mode.

The following subsections describe the radiobeacon maps that are available for display.

Radiobeacon Map (North Atlantic) Page

By clicking the NORTH ATLANTIC COAST menu item within the Radiobeacons sidebar, a North Atlantic map (from Maine to Virginia) is displayed that shows the location of the radiobeacon/DGPS stations in that area. There is an inset on the map for the radiobeacon/DGPS stations of New York, Long Island, Vineyard and Nantucket Sounds since the radiobeacon/DGPS stations are tightly grouped in this area. Section Radiobeacon Map Pages describes what is shown and can be done on this page.

Radiobeacon Map (South Atlantic and Gulf Coast) Page

By clicking the SOUTH ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS menu item within the Radiobeacons sidebar, a South Atlantic and Gulf Coast (from Virgina to Texas) map is displayed that shows the location of the radiobeacon/DGPS stations in that area. There are no insets on the map since the radiobeacon/DGPS stations are spaced far enough apart. Section Radiobeacon Map Pages describes what is shown and can be done on this page.

NOTE: Somewhere around 1987, the light lists for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts were split into four volumes. Before 1992, all of the radiobeacons for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts were documented at the start of the light list. However, between 1992 and 1996 (and perhaps beyond but as of 1996 there was only one radiobeacon still in operation in this area), only the radiobeacons within each volume were documented. Since all volumes for the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast were not available for research during those years, a disclaimer will be displayed below the legend stating where the non-researched radiobeacons are located for these years.

Radiobeacon Map (Pacific) Page

By clicking the PACIFIC COAST menu item within the Radiobeacons sidebar, a Pacific map is displayed that shows the location of the radiobeacons in that area. There are insets for the Pribilof Islands and the Hawaiian Islands since those areas are outside of the main map displayed; in these cases, the radiobeacon symbols are displayed within the inset since the radiobeacon stations are not grouped tightly together. Furthermore, the Hawaiian inset is only displayed in the years in which there was at least one radiobeacon station in the area. There are also the following insets on the map since the radiobeacons are tightly grouped in these areas: 1) California (actually has a Los Angeles inset itself), 2) Northwest (Washington and southern British Columbia), and 3) the Inside Passage (actually includes some area below it). Section Radiobeacon Map Pages describes what is shown and can be done on this page.

NOTE: The Pacific coast light lists contained information for the Canadian radiobeacon stations as well as the lights. These British Columbia radiobeacons are displayed on the maps and displayed in the tables. However, the station type was guessed for the following stations since they were not listed in the light list section of the published light list: Albert (Alert) Bay, Dead Tree, Ethelda Bay, Lennard Island, Sandspit, and Tofino.

Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Stations Maps

By clicking the Special Radio Direction Finder Maps menu item (only displayed if the Direction Finders sidebar is not displayed) under the OTHER SECTIONS menu on the sidebar, the Direction Finders sidebar is displayed that will provide access to different areas for the maps. The following describes what can be accessed on this sidebar:

ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS - display an Atlantic and Gulf coast map for special radio direction finder calibration stations (including non-lightstations) and an associated table for the special radio direction finder calibration stations displayed on the map for any applicable researched year.

PACIFIC COAST - display a Pacific coast map for special radio direction finder calibration stations (including non-lighthouse stations) and an associated table for the special radio direction finder calibration stations displayed on the map for any applicable researched year.

OTHER SECTIONS - access other general sections of the Light Lists resource:

Overview - display the overview that you are reading right now.

Area Maps - display maps that statically and dynamically represent the light characteristics of the lightstations and lightships in any year in which light lists was researched.

Light Lists - display light list related information (characteristics, structures and optics, audible fog signals, other signals, radiobeacon, distance finding, and special radio direction finder calibration) for the researched light lists.

Stations - display the states and provinces that have lighthouses and lightships, aliases for lighthouses, lightship stations, and aliases for lightships.

Radiobeacon Maps - display radiobeacon maps and tables for all radiobeacons, whether they are located at lightstations, lightships, or elsewhere for any year in which light lists was researched.

Glossary - display in depth descriptions of information extracted from the light lists.

By clicking any of the above special radio direction finders-related sidebar menu items (i.e., not in the OTHER SECTIONS menu), an applicable map is displayed that shows the location of the special radio direction finder calibration stations in that area. Above the map are buttons which display the years for which this type of information can be shown. The initial year displayed is the latest year in which special radio direction finder calibration stations were researched in the light lists. Simply by clicking another year button, you can display the special radio direction finder stations for the selected year. If the background of the button is blue, then this denotes that a light list for that year has been researched and it contains the researched special radio direction finder stations information. The text within these navigation buttons are white to denote when they can be accessed to view the information for a different year. The text within a year button is red to denote the year that is currently displayed. If the background of the button is light gray, then this denotes that the special radio direction finder stations information has not been researched; thus, the button is inactive. The first researched light list that had a separate special radio direction calibration station table was in 1950.

Starting in 1987, all volumes of lights for a particular year covering the entire Atlantic and Gulf Coasts were not available for research. A disclaimer will be displayed underneath the map explaining what area of the map may have undocumented special radio direction finders.

All volumes of light lists for 1990 covering the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts were available for research. There was only one special radio direction finder on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, but there were still five of them on the Pacific coast. It is hard to say when the this feature was terminated.

A table is displayed below the map that contains the detailed information for each special radio direction finder calibration station on the map. The following information is displayed for each station:

Station Name - name of the station.

Station Type - type of the station which may either be Light Station, Life Boat Station, Radio Station, Radiobeacon, Remote Control (a station that is remote controlled), or Military Base.

Latitude - the latitude of the station.

Longitude - the longitude of the station.

Freq. (kHz) - the frequencies of the transmission.

Characteristic - the dash/dot characteristic of the transmission. The Morse code characters are displayed before the characteristic for years prior to 1963 and after 1977 as was shown in the light lists of those years.

Remark - remarks concerning the station.

Additional footnotes may be displayed below the table which note how requests for calibration service could have been made at the different stations.

Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Stations Map (Atlantic and Gulf Coasts) Page

By clicking the ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS menu item within the Direction Finders sidebar, an Atlantic and Gulf Coast map is displayed that shows the location of the special radio direction finder calibration stations in that area. Section Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Stations Maps describes what is shownand can be done on this page.

NOTE: The Atlantic coast light lists contained information on all of the special radio direction finder calibration stations along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. These light lists also contained many of the lights in the southern Atlantic and Gulf Coast; however, these lights have not been fully researched yet.

Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Stations Map (Pacific) Page

By clicking the PACIFIC COAST menu item within the Direction Finders sidebar, a Pacific Coast map is displayed that shows the location of the special radio direction finder calibration stations in that area. Section Special Radio Direction Finder Calibration Stations Maps describes what is shownand can be done on this page.

Glossary Page

By clicking the Glossary menu item (only displayed if the Glossary sidebar is not displayed) under the OTHER SECTIONS menu on the sidebar, Glossary page is displayed. A detailed overview of the information extracted from the light lists and presented on this website is displayed. For example, the lighthouse and lightship station characteristics and how you can decipher them is displayed. It also contains various terms and abbreviations and overviews lighthouse and lightship station coordinates, the means for identifying the location of each lighthouse and lightship station, the optics that may have been used in the lighthouses and lightship stations, as well as audible fog signals and other transmitted signals. It also overviews special radio direction finder calibration stations, radiobeacon distance finding, and daymarks among other things.

Display Help

While on almost all of the pages in the Community resource, you have the capability to get help related to the page currently being displayed. By clicking the HELP button on the mini-navigation bar that is displayed just above the page title, the appropriate section of the overview page you are viewing right now will be displayed, giving more detailed information on what is displayed on your page of interest and what you can do on the page of interest.