Chronology of the Development of the Fresnel Lens

Below is a listing of the major changes in the Fresnel lens through time and in most cases who the creator of each change was.



Chronology of the Development of the Fresnel Lighthouse Lens
   
Year Major Change or Improvement
   
1823 Fresnel's First 1st Order Flashing Lens Installed at Cordouan France
1824 Fresnel's First 4th Order Fixed Lens
1825 Fresnel's First 4th Order Fixed-Flashing Lens
1826 Fresnel's First Catadioptric Lens
1835 Introduction of the Fresnel Lens into the Lighthouses in Scotland
1836 First 1st Order Cylindrical Fixed Lens with Upper and Lower Prisms By Cookson in Scotland for Isle of May Lighthouse
1840 First use of Lower Prisms (Lower Catadioptric Panels) in a Flashing lens by Alan Stevenson in Scotland - Skerryvore Lens
1842 First lens design that equalized the power of the Red and White Panels by Alan Stevenson in Scotland
1844 First use of the Fresnel Lens in America at Navesink
1848 Letourneau Proposes and Uses Split Flash Panels to Lengthen the Duration of the Flash in France 
1849 First Holophotal Lens with Prisms above and below the Flash Panels by Thomas Stevenson in Scotland
1849 First Dioptric Spherical Mirror by Thomas Stevenson in Scotland
1850 Letourneau Designs Lenses with Alternating Flash and Fixed Panels in France
1851 First use of the Apparent Light Lens by Thomas Stevenson in Scotland
1855 Design and First use of Condensing Lenses by Thomas Stevenson in Scotland
1858 Proposal to develop Bi-Form Lenses - By J. W. D. Brown in Britain
1859 Design and First Use of the Bi-Valve Lens by Thomas Stevenson in Scotland
1869 Proposal for the Hyper-radial Lens by Thomas Stevenson
1872 Design and Use of Bi-Form Lenses in Ireland by John Wigham
1872 Proposal for Hyper-radial Lens By John Wigham in Ireland
1877 Design and Use of Tri-Form and Quadri-Form Lenses in Ireland by John Wigham
1877 First Hyper-radial Lens Drawings by Barbier & Fenestre in France
1884 Invention of the Group Flashing Lens By Dr. John Hopkinson of Chance Brothers in Britain
1885 First Hyper-radial Lens Panels Built by F. Barbier Tested at South Foreland Trials
1887 First Hyper-radial Lens Built by F. Barbier and installed at Tory Island, Ireland
1887 First Hyper-radial Lens Built by Chance Brothers Britain Installed at Bishop Rock, Britain
1892 Design and First Use of Equiangular Prisms by Charles Stevenson in Scotland
1892 Proposal and Construction of a Single "Giant Lens" Panel Proposed by John Wigham, Ireland Built by F. Barbier, France
1910 The Lighthouse Bureau in America requests that Macbeth-Evans Glass Company develop Fresnel Lenses of the 4th and 5th order made in America
1913 Macbeth-Evans produces the first 4th order American made Fresnel Lens